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[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 10][Reference 12]

E for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders
Appendix 1: Reference Section

11 Ecstasy Revisited, by Bruce Eisner in Gnosis magazine, winter 1993
This article looks back on the research in the US into the neurotoxicity of MDMA. The idea that MDMA might be neurotoxic was first raised in 1985, when George Ricaurte and Charles Shuster at the University of Chicago performed an experiment in which rats were intravenously given very high doses (ten times the therapeutic dose) of MDA, a drug similar to MDMA, at four hourly intervals over two days. Changes were noted in the nerve terminals where serotonin interfaced with brain neurons, Eisner says. The US Drug Enforcement Agency used this as a pretext for putting MDMA in Schedule 1, the category for the most dangerous drug

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 10][Reference 12]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
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