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[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 35][Reference 37]

E for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders
Appendix 1: Reference Section

36 Nutrients for blocking phenethylamine damage, by Dr. Brian Leibovitz, in MAPS newsletter, Spring 1993
Studies in the last few years have established that phenethylamines such as MDMA can undergo 'redox cycling', a process that liberates copious quantities of oxygen free radicals. Excessive amounts overwhelm the system and damage ensues. "Phenethylamines are stored in highest concentrations in the brain and nervous system. Not surprisingly, these tissues are at the greatest risk for being harmed by free radicals (and associated oxidants) formed during the redox cycling of phenethylamines. Moderate intakes appear to be handled well. Excessive quantities, however, may cause oxidative damage. It would therefore be prudent for those taking large amounts of MDMA to take antioxidant supplements as well. These include vitamin C which is water soluble, and vitamin E which is fat soluble. The suggested preventative dose is 2-4 gms vitamin C and 1,000 IU vitamin E. Also recommended are S-Carotene (5mg); Bioflavonoids (2gm); L-Carnitine (1gm); N-Acetylcysteine (2gm) and Selenium (250 ug). Leibovitz recommends 3 times these doses for treatment.

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 35][Reference 37]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
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Spiritual book by Nicholas Saunders