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[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 169][Reference 171]

E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders

Appendix 1: Reference Section

170 Ecstasy by Nadia Solowij in Current Opinion in Psychiatry 6/3 1993

Review of papers to 1993. Makes the point that most fatalities in England were not among first time users, so it is likely that death was due to the conditions of use rather than individual susceptibility as has been suggested by Henry in Toxicity and Deaths from MDMA and Larner in a letter to The Lancet. In Australia the use of E at raves has been widespread without any reported problems. This may be due to variations in purity, ventilation, reporting or simply extent of use.

Direct attribution to MDMA in reported cases of psychiatric disturbance due to Ecstasy is questionable due to additional factors such as other drugs and previous vulnerability to psychiatric disturbance. However, two cases in Italy and one in South Africa imply that no other factors were involved. There may be particularly susceptible individuals.

"Large doses (acute or cumulative), history of psychiatric disturbance and preexisting disease appear to increase the likelihood of adverse effects."

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 169][Reference 171]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
HTMLized by Lamont Granquist (