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[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 175][Reference 177]

E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders

Appendix 1: Reference Section

176 Mapping Toxicant-Induced Nervous System Damage with a Cupric Silver Stain: A Quantitative Analysis of Neural Degeneration Induced by MDMA by Karl Jensen et al. 1993 in Assessing Neurotoxicity of Drugs of Abuse, NIDA monograph 136:133-149

This paper demonstrates the value of the cupric silver staining technique in determining the location and extent of brain damage caused by high doses of MDMA, and suggests that damage is not restricted to serotonergic neurons. It also suggests that the use of fluoxetine ('Prozac') reduces toxicity.

Rats were given 4 doses of MDMA at 12-hourly intervals. Doses varied from 25 to 150 mg/kg. The brains were then frozen, sectioned, silver stained and examined. The staining showed up where damage was caused, which was to particular parts of the brain.

Fluoxetine at 5 mg/kg did not produce staining on its own When given 30 minutes before MDMA, fluoxetine reduced by about half the volume of tissue stained "and dramatically reduced the intensity of staining throughout the affected regions".

Another substance, MK-801 at 1 mg/kg, "virtually eliminated evidence of MDMA-induced silver staining".

Interpretation is to some extent subjective, and the authors are developing an automated process for objectively determining the intensity and volume of staining.

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 175][Reference 177]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
HTMLized by Lamont Granquist (