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A Review of the non-medical use of Ketamine: Part 1: Use, Users and Consequences

Jansen, K. L. R. (2001) A review of the non-medical use of ketamine: part 1: use, users and consequences. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs (in press)
(contact: K@BTInternet.com)

1. Abstract and introduction

2. Ketamine and the dance culture

3. The doors of dissociation

4. Near-death and near-birth experiences

5. Toxic effects

6. Physical effects

7. Conclusions and references

7. CONCLUSIONS

There are indications from a variety of sources that non-medical use of ketamine has increased in the last 15 years, linked with the growth of the dance culture and 'alternative spirituality' movement. The drug has many psychedelic effects. It is important that those who are involved in the treatment of ketamine related problems understand the reasons why this drug is taken, as well as having a realistic understanding of the possible adverse effects. The view that ketamine is a drug only taken by masochistic, bored 'space cadets' who seek 'bad trips', an impression created by some media reports and drug agency leaflets, is far too narrow. The drug provides new insights into aspects of the brain/mind interface such as the NDE and dreaming, and also into human disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. The psychedelic effects may have therapeutic value in some cases, and be harmful in others.

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1. Abstract and introduction

2. Ketamine and the dance culture

3. The doors of dissociation

4. Near-death and near-birth experiences

5. Toxic effects

6. Physical effects

7. Conclusions and references