q + a




newq + atestingarticlesbooksexperienceslinks
[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 78][Reference 80]

E for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders
Appendix 1: Reference Section

79 Ecstasy and Recreational Drug Use in Wirral by C Toddhunter, Liverpool University
Between March and June 1992, 95 drug users participated in this survey. Of the 57 who had used Ecstasy, 52 were interviewed. The following conclusions were drawn:

First time E users tend not to be new to drug taking. Only 1 out of 52 respondents used E before they had tried any other drug and only 3% of respondents had used E prior to the age of 16/17.

Nearly 95% had a history of drug use which included LSD, cannabis and amphetamine prior to taking Ecstasy. Most of them commonly used more than one drug. 96% used E in conjunction with other drugs at raves. Use of Ecstasy took place almost exclusively at raves or where House Music was played.

A strong anti-heroin culture was found among Ecstasy users. There was a tendency for most of those interviewed to regulate and limit their drug use to avoid problems. A small minority who made little attempt to control their use faced serious problems as a result, including paranoia, weight loss and diminished mental activity. Most of these people took Ecstasy, LSD and amphetamine.

Ecstasy had fallen in price: it cost #9-#15 at the time of the survey. Whereas some respondents had a history of Ecstasy use but had drifted away from the drug, the total number of users had not fallen.

Among Ecstasy users, there is a strong rejection of conventional night life culture including even moderate alcohol consumption. Alcohol is perceived to be a bigger AIDS risk, as rave culture is less concerned with sexual gratification. Instead, gratification comes from the intensity of the music and dancing.

Ecstasy users are very keen to obtain factual knowledge about drug use in their own terms, as opposed to what they perceive as misinformation by the media.

"A minority of young people in Wirral shows a firm attachment to Ecstasy use. It is as acceptable and conventional to them as drinking alcohol is for the wider population," Toddhunter says.

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 78][Reference 80]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
HTMLized by Lamont Granquist ( index
Spiritual use of psychoactives book by Nicholas Saunders