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[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 155][Reference 157]

E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders

Appendix 1: Reference Section

156 Chronic MDMA use: Effects on Mood and Neuropsychological Function? by George Ricaurte et al. in American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 18/3, 1992

The object of this study was to see whether MDMA use may produce long-term psychological effects. Nine individuals were studied with extensive MDMA use (twice a month for 5 years).

None of the 9 reported current psychiatric problems although 7 reported previous periods in their lives when they suffered from anxiety or depression. Most had family histories of alcohol or other substance abuse. All sometimes also used other substances, although MDMA was there drug of choice.

"Mental status examinations did not reveal any clinical impairments in cognitive function, nor did neurological exams reveal any focal neurologic deficits."

"Performance in the Wechsler Memory Scale was subtly impaired in several subjects" - but the amount of impairment did not correlate with the amount of MDMA used. All but the heaviest user of MDMA showed at least mild impairment in at least one neuropsychological function. However, none showed affective or anxiety disorder or depression.

A note of caution adds that the sample was too small to draw definite conclusions from, but the overall result was that heavy MDMA users probably had slightly worse short-term memories, but were not depressed nor did they show any other problems that might effect their lives.

[Contents][Appendix 1]
[Reference 155][Reference 157]
E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders (
HTMLized by Lamont Granquist (