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E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders
Appendix 4: Bibliography
Quotations from reviews
- Burger, A. "Drugs and People" University Press of Virginia,
Charlottesville, 1986. p. 65. This quotation, from the chapter on
neurohormones, will be the sole example given of the irresponsible
misinformation that can be published by experts in the field.
- [in reference to designer drugs] "Others are synthetic compounds tried out
by addicts in the hope that they might give them a new mental high. The
most dangerous of these materials are 3-methylfentanyl and MDMA, a relative
of methamphetamine. Both produce dangerous damage to the general health of
the users and cause heroin-like addiction at unbelievably low doses."
- Glennon, R.A., Rosecrans, J.A. and Young, R. Drug-induced Discrimination: A
Description of the Paradigm and a Review of its Specific Application to the
Study of Hallucinogenic Agents. Medical Research Reviews 3 289-340 (1983).
- "Racemic - MDA produces (conditioned response) effects similar to those of
DOM, however, administration of its N-methyl derivative, racemic MDMA, to
the DOM-trained animals, resulted in disruption of behaviour."
- Nichols, D.E. and Glennon, R.A. Medicinal Chemistry and Structure-Activity
Relationships of Hallucinogens, in Hallucinogens: Neurochemical,
Behavioral, and Clinical Perspectives Ed. B.L. Jacobs, Raven Press, New
- "N-Alkylation of the phenethylamines abolishes or greatly attenuates
biological activity. Two noteworthy exceptions are the (N-methyl and
N-ethyl) 3,4-methylenedioxy substituted compounds. These retain potency
nearly comparable to the parent MDA, but present a different qualitative
picture. Their duration of action is reduced to about 1-1/2 to 2 hours and
they produce only minor disruption of normal sensory processing. They
apparently amplify empathy and would seem to be ideal candidates as
adjuncts to psychotherapy."
- Shulgin, A.T. Psychotomimetic Drugs: Structure-Activity Relationships.
Handbook of Psychopharmacology Volume 11; Stimulants, Eds. L.L.Iversen,
S.D. Iversen and S.H. Snyder, Plenum Press, New York. p. 292. (1978)
- "MDMA has a higher threshold level than does MDA but otherwise it is very
similar in potency. Within the effective dose range (100-150 mg orally) the
effects are first noted very quickly, usually within one-half hour
following administration. With most subjects the plateau of effects is
reported to occur within another one-half hour to one hour. The
intoxication symptoms are largely dissipated in an additional two hours,
except for a mild residual sympathomimetic stimulation, which can persist
for several additional hours. There are few physical indicators of
intoxication, and psychological sequelae are virtually nonexistent.
Qualitatively, the drug appears to evoke an easily controlled altered state
of consciousness with emotional and sensual overtones very reminiscent of
low levels of MDA."
- Shulgin, A.T. Hallucinogens. Burger's Medicinal Chemistry, 4th Edition,
Part III, Ed. M.E. Wolff, Wiley and Son, New York. p 1120. (1981)
- "This affective interaction (a state of sensory amplification and
enhancement without appreciable sympathomimetic stimulation, an easy
communication between subject and observer) is even more clearly evident in
the N-methyl homolog of MDA (i.e., MDMA) which is substantially free of
perceptual distortion at effective dosages (75-150 mg)."
- Shulgin, A.T., Chemistry of Psychotomimetics, Psychotropic Agents Part III,
Alcohol and Psychotomimetics; Psychotropic Effects of Central Acting Drugs,
Eds. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. p 14. (1982)
- "Several of these substituted amphetamine analogs have been studied as
their N-methyl homologues (in analogy with the relationship between
amphetamine and methamphetamine). Although most show a striking drop in
potency, MDMA (the N-methyl homologue of MDA) retains full activity."
- Stafford, P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia, Revised Edition, J.P. Tarcher,
Inc., Los Angeles, CA p 289. (1983)
- "Synthesis of MDMA, active in the doses of the 75-100 mg range and shorter
and milder in its effects than MDA, was not reported in the scientific
literature until 1960. It has since been established that MDMA was one of
the "Experimental Agents" tested at Edgewood Chemical Warfare Service,
where it was labelled EA-1475. (MDA was labelled EA-1299)."
- Weil, A. and Rosen, W. Chocolate to Morphine; Understanding Mind-active
Drugs, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1983. p 108
- "A newer drug, MDM (methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, also known as MDMA,
Adam, and "XTC"), gives the same general effect (as MDA) but lasts four to
six hours instead of ten to twelve. Because of the shorter duration of
action, it seems gentler on the body with less day-after fatigue."
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