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[Contents][Appendix 4]
[Section 11][Section 13]

E is for Ecstasy by Nicholas Saunders

Appendix 4: Bibliography

Reviews and social commentary

including a sampling of magazine, newspaper and radio commentary

Abbott, A. and Concar, D. A Trip into the Unknown. New Scientist, August 29, 1992, pp. 30-34.

An overview is presented on the history of MDMA and the difficulty in determining if there is human risk paralleling the known neurotoxic effects in experimental primates. A picture is given of its extensive use in the popular party structure known popularly as "raves," and it has become the third most widest used drug in England, surpassed only by marijuana and amphetamine.

Abramson, D.M. Ecstasy: The New Drug Underground. New Age, October, 1985, pp 35-40.

This article addresses the questions that are raised by the conflict of governmental banning of drugs that are of potential value in psychotherapy, and the therapist's determination to continue exploring their use.

Adamson, S. "Through the Gateway of the Heart: Accounts of Experiences with MDMA and other Empathogenic Substances." Four Trees Publications, San Francisco. Foreword by R. Metzner. 1985.

This book is a collection of some fifty personal accounts, largely involving MDMA. Some are from the notes of therapists, involving clinical usage, and others are personal accounts from self-exploration.

Adelaars, A. Ecstasy: De opkomst van een Bewustzijnsveranderend Middel. Published by In De Knipscheer, Amsterdam, 1991. ISBN 90 6265 342 1. 136 pp (Dutch).

This small paperback volume presents a brief history of psychedelic drugs, then the history of MDMA both in Holland and in the broader scene. The topics range from therapy to popular use.

Adler, J. Getting High on 'Ecstasy.' Newsweek, April 15, 1985, p. 96.

This is a short, apparently factual, overview of both the chemical and the "street" use of MDMA. It is generally sympathetic to its medical potential.

Anon: Several reports from the Brain/Mind Bulletin:

(1) MDMA: Compound raises medical and legal issues. Brain/Mind Bulletin, 10, #8, April 15, 1985.

The title article is presented, and nearly the entire issue is given over to a thorough coverage of the medical and scientific aspects of MDMA.

(2) Psychiatrists, drug-abuse specialists testify in L.A. at first MDMA hearing. Brain/Mind Bulletin, 10, #12 July 8, 1985.

A news report on the first round of hearings in Los Angeles, concerning the scheduling of MDMA. An overview of the testimony is presented.

(3) Judge proposes more lenient schedule for MDMA. Brain/Mind Bulletin, 11, #11 June 16, 1986.

Administrative Law Judge Francis Young recommended, at the conclusions of the MDMA hearings, that the DEA put the drug into Schedule III, partly to ease research with the compound, and partly due to the absence of demonstrated abuse of the drug.

(4) MDMA: Federal court decides that DEA used improper criteria. Brain/Mind Bulletin, 13, #2 November, 1987.

A report is given as to the First Court of Appeals in Boston, ruling that the DEA had not sufficiently considered the arguments concerning the current medical use of MDMA.

Anon: DEA Proposal to Ban New Psychedelic Protested. Substance Abuse Report, December, 1984. pp 4-5.

The several letters that were addressed to the DEA in response to its announcement in the Federal Register to consider the scheduling of MDMA, are here abstracted and commented upon.

Anon: Ecstasy: 21st Century Entheogen. Private Tract, 28 pages.

This is an elaborate thesis that is directed totally to the promotion of the use of MDMA. There is a presumed question and answer section, that is designed for the cautiously curious.

Anon: MDMA. NIDA Capsules. Issued by the Press Office of the National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, Maryland. July 1985.

A two-page precis describing the health problems encountered with MDMA use, its relationship to the neurotransmitters, and the moves being made at the Justice Department to combat "designer drugs" such as MDMA in the future.

Anon: Designer Drugs: A New Concern for the Drug Abuse Community. NIDA Notes, December, 1985, pp. 2-3.

A discussion of "designer drugs" is arranged in four groups: variations on fentanyl, on meperidine, on PCP, and on amphetamine and methamphetamine. MDMA fits this last group. The research directions of NIDA are discussed.

Anon. Esctasy of the Eighties. Frontline, August 24-September 6, 1985 (page 83-85).

A review article on the emergence of MDMA, published in one of India's major national magazines. No new information, and no suggestion that there is any use in India.

Anon. The Hyping of Ecstasy. The Illustrated London News, October, 1988 pp. 29-32.

A developing fad is described in London, called "Acid House" which involves loud rock music, violent dancing, and the use of MDMA. It is being largely ignored by the authorities.

Anon: Mind-bending Drug Could Leave Brains Permanently Warped. New Scientist, 21 January (1989) p. 30.

A short summary of the AAAS meeting in San Francisco. Peroutka is quoted as saying the consumers of MDMA should abandon its use altogether. If they continue, he said, they risk damage to their nervous systems that may take decades to manifest itself. It could emerge initially as depression or disturbance to sleep. This is the first hint as to the specific form of the down-the-road damage that is being promoted as a cost of using MDMA.

Anon: "Ice" and "Ecstasy" Two Dangerous Psychotropic Drugs. International Criminal Police Review. 45 1-24 (1990).

A brief review of the dangers and health hazards of two designer drugs is presented; vis., methamphetamine and MDMA. International controls of the easily available chemical precursors should be instituted. The author is the ICPO-Interpol General Secretariat.

Anon: Deal mit Cadillac (September 4, 1989); Ecstasy und Cadillac (November 12, 1989). Der Spiegel.

Two of several news articles appearing in Germany, presenting the scandal surrounding the chemical firm Imhausen-Chemie. It had been producing, and selling, large quantities of a precursor to MDMA (piperonylacetone, which they called PMK) as well of literally millions of tablets of the final product itself (which they called "Ecstasy," "XTC," "Adam" or "Cadillac."). The magnitude of operation was tons of drug, and millions of tablets. And, of course, the money volume was many millions of Deutsche Marks.

Bakalar, J.B. and Grinspoon, L. Testing Psychotherapies and Drug Therapies: The Case of Psychedelic Drugs. The Clinical, Pharmacological and Neurotoxicological Effects of the Drug MDMA. Kluwer, New York. (1990) Ed: S.J. Peroutka.

The problems associated with the social and medical acceptance of drugs as a valid component of the psychotherapeutic process are outlined and discussed. MDMA is used as a specific point of illustration.

Barbour, J. Cracking Down: What You Must Know About Dangerous Drugs. The Associated Press. 1986.

This is a 63 page illustrated essay, aimed at stopping drug use and abuse by scaring the reader. Unfortunately, the information is not completely accurate. MDMA is spun together with other designer drugs as things that destroy the brain.

Barendregt, C. Dutch Conference on MDMA. The International Journal on Drug Policy 1 Issue #6 (1990?).

This is a summation of the January 23, 1990 conference in Amsterdam, sponsored by the Dutch Institute on Alcohol and Drugs. With the passing of legislation against MDMA in November 1988, the criminal aspect of the use of this drug has quite logically increased. Dutch drug law (of 1976) distinguishes two categories of drug; those with an unacceptable risk (Group 1, containing such drugs as cocaine and heroin) and those with less risk (Group 2, containing only marijuana and hash). Newly marketed, and illegalized, drugs such as MDMA can only be defined as Group 1 as Group 2 is closed to any new substances. It was concluded that the risks of MDMA use are to be found in its legal status, rather than in its pharmacological properties.

Barnes, D.M. New Data Intensifies the Agony over Ecstasy. Science 239 864-866 (1988).

A review and commentary is presented of the Winter Conference on Brain Research, 23-30 January, 1988, in which there was a section on MDMA. A distillation of the comments made yields the feeling that more clinical work is needed to define the value, and that there would not likely be any further clinical work done. There are extensive quotations from some of the authors of recent animal studies on serotonin toxicity.

Barnett, R. DEA: RSVP re MDMA. Editorial from KCBS, July 29, 1985.

With the possibility of therapeutic value seen in some psychiatric cases, KCBS felt that the action of the DEA (making MDMA illegal) short-circuited the hearings process, and was premature. A request is made to allow research on the effects and potentials of this drug to continue.

Baum, R.M. New Variety of Street Drugs Poses Growing Problem. Chemical and Engineering News, September 9, 1985. pp. 7-16.

A completely professional article discussing the challenges presented to law enforcement officials, legislators and scientists, by the invention of analogues of illegal drugs by underground chemists. MDMA is held out as being quite apart from the fentanyl and meperidine examples, and is analysed at some length.

Beck, J. MDMA: The Popularization and Resulting Implications of a Recently Controlled Psychoactive Substance. Contemporary Drug Problems Spring, 1986. pp 23-63.

A historical analysis is made of the relationship between drug illegalization and social issues. MDMA is used as a specific example, and a considerable body of first hand observations of its use is also presented.

Beck, J. and Morgan, P.A. Designer Drug Confusion: A Focus on MDMA. J. Drug Education 16 267-282 (1986).

This article discusses the competing definitions and issues surrounding the various designer drugs, but is primarily devoted to an examination of MDMA. A rationale is offered as to why interest in MDMA will continue to grow.

Beck, J. and Rosenbaum, M. "Pursuit of Ecstasy: The MDMA Experience." State University of New York Press, New York. 239 pp. (1994).

This book is the first complete analysis of the clinical value of MDMA, and it brings together into one place the previously scattered reports of the drug's use in therapy. The information that is compiled here, was originally the raw material for a report to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), as the presentation of a summary of a contract awarded the authors to study MDMA. The final report was never published by NIDA, and so this book serves as a supurb vehicle for making these findings available as public information.

Beebe D.K. and Walley, E. Update on Street Drugs in Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi State Medical Association, 1989 Dec,

Drug abuse is on the rise in Mississippi. Treatment centers across the state report significant increases in substance abuse cases. Consequently, family physicians must have the most current, accurate information available and the skills with which to treat either an acute crisis or the chronic problems related to drug abuse. The authors present an overview of the clinical presentations and management of some of the most widely used designer drugs: crack, ecstasy and PCP.

Beebe, D.K. and Walley, E. Update on Street Drugs in Mississippi. Journ. Miss. State Med Ass. 30 387-390 (1989).

A discussion of the drug abuse problem in Mississppi is presented. MDMA is listed with a check list of the medical compilation that can follow use.

Beebe, D.K. and Walley, E. Substance Abuse: The Designer Drugs. AFP May 1991, p. 1689.

A brief overview of the "Designer Drug" is presented, using mescaline, the synthetic opiods, the aryehexylamines, and methaquelone as prototypes.

Bost, R.O. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and Other Amphetamine Derivatives. J. Forensic Sci. 33 576-587 (1988).

A series of amphetamine derivatives are discussed as "Designer Drugs" with structures slightly modified from explicitly named illegal drugs. A number of emergency cases are presented, which are documented with MDA, MDMA and MDE involvement. A number of analytical procedures are demonstrated.

Buchanan, J. Ecstasy in the Emergency Department. Clinical Toxicology Update, 7 1-4 (1985).

A review of the history and the pharmacology of the psychoactive amphetamines is given. The overall recommendation for the emergency room is to expect an overdosed patient to present with signs similar to those with an amphetamine overdose, and to expect to treat primarily signs of anxiety and hypertension. The attending physician can expect the patient to be unaware of the actual toxin he has taken, and careful laboratory work will be needed to identify the chemical in body fluids and drug samples.

Callaway, E. The Biology of Information Processing. J. Psychoactive Drugs 18 315-318 (1986).

A review is presented of the difficulties that are classically part of the communication of information, and the roles of the many psychologists and physicians who have addressed the problem. The study of neurotransmitters, and thus drugs that involve these brain chemicals, is part of the eventual understanding. The role of non-classic "unsleepy drugs" (stimulants) such as MDMA are speculated upon as potential tools in this study.

Chaudhuri, A. Cause and E-ffect. Time Out, August 5-12 (1992).

A review of the background of MDMA and the increasing medical concern in England regarding its popularity in the rave scene. Arguments are advanced for its removal from Category A of English law, allowing its potential in therapy to be explored.

Chesher, G., Some Views on Ecstasy. Modern Medicine of Australia April 1990 pp. 76-85.

A brief and quite accurate review is given as to the background, therapeutic interest, legal history, and neurotoxicity of MDMA.

Climko, R.P., Roehrich, H., Sweeney, D.R. and Al-Razi, J. Ecstasy: A Review of MDMA and MDA. Int'l Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine. 16 359-372 (1986-87).

A review of the pharmacology and toxicity of MDA is presented, with some additional data for MDMA. A balanced presentation with 75 references.

Cohen, S. They Call It Ecstasy. Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Newsletter, Vista Hill Foundation. 14 # 6. September, 1985.

A basically negative overview of the prospects of MDMA in therapy. There is wistful note with the "we've been through all this before" feeling. LSD had hope, LSD failed, and this too shall fail.

Conner, M. and Sherlock, K. Attitudes and Ecstasy Use. Paper presented at the European Association of Experimental Social Psychology, 15-20 September, 1993, Lisbon.

An anonymous questionaire was distributed amongst young people (in England) who had varying degrees of experience with MDMA. Over half the sample had tried the drug, and a substantial minority used it regularly. The results are discussed in terms of the design of literature that could be directed at changing this use pattern.

Corliss, J. Agonizing over Ecstasy. Santa Cruz Sentinel, Friday March 24, 1989.

An update on the controversy surrounding the use of MDMA, geared for popular consumption. Emphasis is on serotonin and damage, if not now, maybe somewhere down the road.

Deluca, N. Closed Doors/Closed Minds. KCBS Editorial. July 10, 1986.

An opinion is expressed, that the easy answer to MDMA given by the federal government, illegalization by placement into Schedule I, was the wrong answer. It appears that MDMA warrants a closer look by therapists, and the DEA should not simply lock the drug away where it cannot be investigated.

Doblin, R. Murmurs in the Heart of the Beast: MDMA and the DEA, HHS, NIDA, NIMH, ADAMHA, FBI and the WHO. Privately printed. August 8, 1984.

This is a collection of many of the letters exchanged between the DEA and the FDA, that led to the decision to place MDMA in the listings of scheduled drugs. Also included are the DAWN (medical emergency) reports, and letters written in response to the proposed scheduling.

Doblin, R. The Media Does MDMA. Privately printed, August 5, 1985 -July 2, 1987.

This is a collection of articles, newspaper accounts, writings from many sources, that touch upon MDMA. It is arranged as a collage.

Doblin, R. A Proposal for Orphan Pharmaceuticals, Inc. A Division of Neurobiological Technologies, Inc. August 4, 1987.

A review of the history of MDMA and the arguments for its legitimate commercial consideration are presented. The NTI Board of Directors did not accept this proposal.

Doblin, R. Risk Assessment: The FDA and MDMA Research. PM&E (Psychedelic Monographs and Essays) 4 98 (1989).

A brief review of the current status of the neurological toxicity studies, and an analysis of their extrapolation to human subjects.

Doblin, R. (1) MDMA: Risk Assessment and the FDA. April 14, 1989. (2) Regulation or Prohibition? MDMA Research in Switzerland and the United States. May 26, 1989. (3) Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Summer, 1989.

These are three privately published tracts. The first reviews the present research status of MDMA, and presents an overview of the clinical experiments under way in Switzerland. The second essay lists the names and addresses of the Swiss researchers. The third entry is a continuing newsletter publication with articles and announcements concerning developments in the area of psychedelic research. News on MDMA is of the highest priority.

Dowling, C.G. The Trouble with Ecstasy. Life Magazine, August, 1985, pp. 88-94.

A pictorial article timed to coincide with the first of the hearings concerning the eventual fate of MDMA, and with the effective placement of it under emergency legal control.

Edwards, G. Blasted with Ennui. British Med. J. 298 136 (1989).

A highly critical opinion is shared with the readers concerning yet another drugs being promoted as an adjunct to psychotherapy, given a appealing name, and as has happened before, eventually discovered to be highly damaging.

Ehrlich, B. Understanding Ecstasy: The MDM Story. Privately Printed Book Manuscript. About 70 pages. 1986.

This is a partial draft of a book, privately printed and circulated, covering the history and paramedical use of MDMA.

Ehrnstein, L.B., Reflections on Drug Enforcement and Drug Use. Psychedelic Monographs and Essays, 2 17-24 (1987).

An instructive and favorable review of the history and the possible usefulness of MDMA is presented. There are suggestions offered as to how the inexperienced subject might approach MDMA for personal development.

Eisner, B. ECSTASY, The MDMA Story. Ronin Press, Berkeley 1989. 228 pages.

This book is a complete review of much of the background and history of the origin and entry of MDMA into the culture. It was in this book that an earlier edition of this bibliographic summary appeared

Farrell, M. Ecstasy and the Oxygen of Publicity. Brit. J. Addiction 84 943 (1989).

A short and appropriate review of how the furious and righteous publicity given the use of MDMA in Britain, fuelled its popularity.

Fitzgerald, J. MDMA and Harm. Intern. J. Drug Policy 2 #4 Jan-Feb. (1991).

An overview of the history of MDMA use is presented, to allow the formation of opinion as to the properness of its legalization. It is concluded that no change in the legal status is warranted.

Fitzgerald, J. MDMA and Harm. Intern. J. Drug Policy 2 22-24 (1993)

An analysis of the MDMA problem, vis-a-vis Australian law, is presented. There balance of the literature presentation of harm regarding the drug leans towards its being relatively safe. However, there is no evidence that the community is harmed or suffering in any way by its being maintained in an illegal status. Thus it should remain illegal.

Gallagher, W. The Looming Menace of Designer Drugs. Discover 7 24 (1986).

A long and gloomy article on the growing problems of uncontrolled analogues of heroin. There is a heavy emphasis on the medical professional's use and involvement in drug abuse. A one page side-box gives a view of MDMA, with balance between therapeutic potential and the risks of using unevaluated and unapproved new drugs.

Garfinkel, S.L. The Price of Ecstasy. New Age Journal, May 1989, p. 22.

This is a brief review of the current legal/clinical status of MDMA, with a note-worthy quote from the FDA spokeswoman Susan Cruzan. "It is irrelevant to talk about clinical trials of a drug that has no legitimate medical use."

Gertz, K.R. "HugDrug" Alert: The Agony of Ecstasy. Harper's Bazaar, November 1985, p. 48.

A popular article is offered, with a balanced discussion of the case for, and the case against, the use of MDMA.

Gibb, J.W., Johnson, M. and Hanson, G.R. Neurochemical Basis of Neurotoxicity, NeuroToxicity 11 317-322 (1990).

The properties of 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine are reviewed, in a presentation of the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. The principle drugs of discussion are methamphetamine and MDMA.

Gibb, J.W., Johnson, M., Stone, D. and Hanson. G.R. MDMA: Historical Perspectives. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 600 601-612 (1990).

A review of a number of neurotoxicological aspects of MDMA is presented.

Gibb, J.W., Stone, D., Johnson, M. and Hanson, G.R. Neurochemical Effects of MDMA. The Clinical, Pharmacological and Neurotoxicological Effects of the Drug MDMA. Kluwer, New York. (1990) Ed: S.J. Peroutka.

An extensive review of the neurotoxicological properties of MDMA is presented. The data suggest that although MDMA perturbs both the dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems of experimental animals, it is only the serotoninergic system that is persistently altered.

Glennon, R. A. Discriminative Stimulus Properties of Phenylisopropylamine Derivatives. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 17 119-134 (1986).

A broad review of many substituted phenylisopropylamines and their responses in discriminative studies in animals trained to discriminate amphetamine (or, separately, DOM) from saline. MDMA produced no DOM-appropriate response (DOM is an hallucinogen) but did cross react with amphetamine (a stimulant).

Gold, M.S. Ecstasy, Etc. Alcoholism and Addiction Sept-Oct. 1985. p. 11.

Criticism of the popular use of untested drugs such as MDMA is presented. It is argued that all new "wonder euphorogenics" should be considered extremely dangerous until proven safe and effective for a specific condition by the FDA and the medical research community.

Goldstein, R. The Facts about 'Ecstasy' A Talk with Andrew Weil. The Village Voice, February 7, 1989, p. 31.

This is an overview of the present status of MDMA, followed by a careful and balanced interview with Andrew Weil on its clinical use and hazards.

Grant, A. and Wagner, J. Case Book: The Batman. Ecstasy. Detective Comics No. 594, published by DC Comics, Inc. 1988.

A magnificently lurid illustrated story of how the use of Ecstasy drove a sound business man and currency trader to total madness, voices in the head, urge to blow up the principals in the New York drug trade. He was the final victim. Drugs kill.

Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J.B. What is MDMA? Harvard Medical School Mental Health Letter 2 8 (1985).

A brief presentation of the cogent facts that define MDMA.

Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J.B. A Potential Psychotherapeutic Drug? The Psychiatric Times, January, 1986. pp 4-5, 18.

A review of the development of the use of drugs in psychotherapy, and a discussion of the role that a drug like MDMA might play in this medical area.

Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J.B. Can Drugs be Used to Enhance the Psychotherapeutic Process? Amer. J. Psychotherap. 40 393-404 (1986).

There is evidence that the psychotherapeutic process can be enhanced by the use of drugs that invite self-disclosure and self-exploration. Such drugs might help to fortify the therapeutic alliance and in other ways. One drug that may prove promising for this purpose is the psychedelic amphetamine MDMA.

Hagerty, C. "Designer Drug" Enforcement Act Seeks to Attack Problem at Source. American Pharmacy NS25 10-11(1985).

An extensive argument is presented for the passage of the "Designer Drug" Enforcement Act, to effectively attack the sources of new drugs.

Harris, L. S. The Stimulants and Hallucinogens under Consideration: A Brief Overview of their Chemistry and Pharmacology. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 17 107-118 (1986).

A literature review is made of a number of drugs that are under consideration for international control. MDMA is briefly mentioned, and described as being in man more of a stimulant than a hallucinogen.

Hershkovits, D. Esctasy: The Truth About MDMA. High Times November, 1985. p. 33.

An interview was held with Richard Seymour, author of the book MDMA. Many good and reasonable questions, answered directly and accurately.

Hollister, L.E. Clinical Aspects of Use of Phenylalkylamine and Indolealkylamine Hallucinogens. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 22 977-979 (1986).

A generally negative evaluation of the use of hallucinogens (such as MDA, MDMA, LSD) based largely on the potential of neurotoxicity and the absence of clinical verification of value. Most of the value must be gleaned from studies of twenty years ago, and the absence of recent research is ascribed to unusually high toxicity or to the lack of interest. The legal difficulties are not addressed.

Johnson, T. Trafic d'Extase. Actuel #137. November (1990) p. 107 et seq.

This is an in-depth but reasonably current overview of the drug ecstasy and its role in the drug scene in Amsterdam, where it is apparently being synthesized for the entire continent. Comments from the as well detractors as the promoters are gathered together, with a final word on its potential legalization.

Jones, R. Why the Thought Police Banned Ecstasy. Simply Living, 2 #10. p. 91-95.

A review of the United States controversy concerning MDMA as seen through Australian eyes. There are implications of considerable use in Australia.

Kirsch, M.M. "Designer Drugs" CompCare Publications, Minneapolis. 1986.

This book is organized into chapters that treat each of some half-dozen drugs that have been created or modified so as to circumvent explicit legal restrictions, or have recently emerged into popularity. One chapter, entitled "Ecstasy", spins together the popular lore concerning MDMA with quotations from various writers and lecturers and several anonymous users.

Klein, J. The New Drug They Call 'Ecstasy', New York (magazine), May 20, 1985, pp 38-43.

This is a popular article that brings together quotations that express the broad range of attitudes held by both the proponents and the opponents of the current clinical employment of MDMA. Some historical background is presented, as well as an articulate description of the effect the drug produces.

Korf, D., Blanken, P. and Nabben, T. Een Nieuwe Wonderpil? Verspreiding, effecten en risico's van ecstasygebruik in Amsterdam. A book in Dutch of over 150 pages. (1991)

The origins, distribution, availability, and use of Ecstasy in The Netherlands is discussed. Since 1988, MDMA has been covered under the Opium Act, but there is little active police intervention. There appears to be extensive misrepresentation of this drug with frequent substitution of some amphetamine-like substitute. The street price remains very high.

Laverty, R. and Logan, B.J. Ecstasy Abuse. New Zealand Med. J. 102 451 (1989).

A request is extended to practitioners for information concerning possible MDMA exposure with their patients. If possible, a sample of the drug involved in any referral could be given for analysis, which would allow an accurate estimate to be made of the magnitude of this particular drug problem in New Zealand.

Leavy, J. Ecstasy: The Lure and the Peril. The Washington Post June 1, 1985. Zagoria, S. More "Peril" than "Lure." ibid. July 3, 1985,

A well researched and careful article reviewing all aspects of the MDMA palavar. The reply by Mr. Zagoria expressed the thought that Ms. Leavy's presentation was too enticing, with lure outweighing peril.

Leverant, R. MDMA Reconsidered. J. Psychoactive Drugs 18 373-379 (1986).

A summation of thoughts and impressions gathered at the Oakland, California Conference on MDMA (May, 1986). The theme presented is the need of open-mindedness in the area of personal and well as clinical freedom of research, and MDMA was used as a focal point.

Lyttle, T. and Montagne, M. Drugs, Music, and Ideology: A Social Pharmacological Interpretation of the Acid House Movement. Intern. J. Addict. 27 1159-1177 (1992).

The development of the "Acid House" phenomenon from it's origin in 1988 in England, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the role played by music and drugs in the changing of statesof consciousness.

Mandi, J. Ecstasy. The Face #38, November, 1991. Three page article.

A rather balanced and reasonable article about some reasons for, and some difficulties associated with, the excessive use of MDMA.

McConnell,H. MDMA. The Journal. July 1, 1986 pp. 11-12.

A thorough review of the Oakland, California MDMA conference is presented, in considerable detail and with excellent balance.

McDonnell, E. One World, One Party. S.F. Weekly, January 29, 1992 pp 12-13.

A view of the rave scene in San Francisco, with the emphasis on MDMA (but with LSD and mushrooms also contributing) and smart drinks (vitamins, minerals, and little alcohol). and lights and music and colour. All is very expensive, and very much in style. Psychedelic drug use is taken for granted.

McGuire, P. and Fahy, T. Flashbacks following MDMA. Brit. J. Psychiatry. 160 276 (1992).

A retrospective analysis of an earlier report concerning MDMA use has uncovered the fact that flashbacks had occurred. An apology is extended for the polypharmacy that was implied in that report; cannabis was present but there was no evidence for the presence of MDMA. Apparently an analysis for MDMA use was not asked for and so it was not reported as being present. More frequent urine screenings should help to implicate MDMA with medical problems, in light of the current widespread use of the drug.

McKenna, D.J. and Peroutka, S.J. The Neurochemistry and Neurotoxicity of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy"), J. Neurochem. 54 14-22 (1990).

A thoroughly documented review of the present state of knowledge of the effects of MDMA on animal systems.

McKenna, D.J. and Peroutka, S.J. Serotonin Neurotoxins: Focus on MDMA (3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, "Ecstasy"). In: Serotonin Receptor Subtypes: Basic and Clinical Aspects, Editor, Peroutka, Wiley-Liss, New York. pp.125-146 (1991).

In a volume on serotonin receptors (part of a receptor biochemistry and methodology series) the "halogenated amphetamine" receptor subtype is characterized in an extensive review essay of MDMA and the neurotoxicity that is ascribed to it.

McNeil, L. A Woodstock of Their Own. Details, Decemeber 1991 pp. 26-38.

This is a candid expose of one explicit rave weekend in Los Angeles. The picture shows that the entire structure is build about the drug MDMA which is an essential component of the event.

Molliver, M.E., Berger, U.V., Mamounas, L.A., Molliver, D.C., O'Hearn, E. and Wilson, M.A. Neurotoxocity of MDMA and Related Compounds: Anatomical Studies. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci 600 640-664 (1990).

A review and discussion is presented from a recent symposium of serotonin neuropharmacology. Comparisons of MDMA, MDA, p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine are made.

Nasmyth, P. The Agony and the Ecstasy. The Face, October, 1986 p. 52.

A popularized article from England on the properties and the uses of MDMA. It strongly suggests that the drug is already deeply instilled in British culture.

Nasmyth, P. Laing on Ecstasy. International J.Drug Policy. 1 14-15 (1989).

A brief profile of the late controversial psychiatrist R.D.Laing, and his views of the potential of the drug MDMA in a therapy role.

Newmeyer, J.A. Some Considerations on the Prevalence of MDMA Use. J. Psychoactive Drugs 18 361-362 (1986).

An epidemiology survey of MDMA use (as of 1986) from the usual information sources (Drug Abuse Warning Network, DAWN; the Community Epidemiology Work Group, CEWG; police department reports, medical examiner or coroner's office reports) gives little indications that there is a medical problem associated with its use. Epidemiologically, it can not be considered at the present time a problem. It may well be that the material currently enjoys controlled, careful use by a number of cognoscenti (as did LSD in the early 1960's) and perhaps in future years a larger number of less sophisticated individuals will be drawn into its usage, and will find ways to evince adverse reactions, police involvement, and other unpleasant consequences.

Newmeyer, J.A. X at the Crossroads. J. Psycho. Drugs 25 341-342 (1993).

A short essay addresses the question of the eventual responses of the public to MDMA. Arguments are presented that support its gaining de facto tolerance (achieving a status akin to that of marijuana) but other observations that could lead to a hostile LSD-like rejection. He believes that the next two years will be decisive.

Nichols, D.E. MDMA Represents a New Type of Pharmacologic Agent and Cannot be Considered to be either a Hallucinogenic Agent or an Amphetamine-type Stimulant.

This is an unpublished essay submitted both to the DEA and to the WHO group, through the offices of Richard Cotton. It presents a point by point analysis from both in vitro and in vivo studies of the pharmacological properties of MDMA and its isomers, with MDA (a structurally related hallucinogenic compound) and other amphetamines. He concludes that its actions represent a new classification of pharmacology, and clinical research with it in psychotherapy would argue against placing it in Schedule I.

Nichols, D.E. Differences Between the Mechanism of Action of MDMA, MBDB, and the Classic Hallucinogens. Identification of a New Therapeutic Class: Entactogens. J. Psychoactive Drugs 18 305-313 (1986).

This article presents a review of the extensive neurological and pharmacological evidence that supports the stand that MDMA and MBDB should be classified neither as hallucinogens (psychedelic drugs) nor as simple stimulants. An argument is made for a novel classification, entactogens.

Nichols, D.E. and Oberlender, R. Structure-Activity Relationships of MDMA and Related Compounds: A New Class of Psychoactive Drugs. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 600 613-625 (1990).

A review of the pharmacological and behavioral properties of MDMA and MBDB suggests that they represent members of a new class of psychopharmacological agents. A extensive discussion is also included.

Nichols, D.E. and Oberlender, R. Structure-Activity Relationships of MDMA-Like Substances, NIDA Research Monograph Series #94 pp. 1-29 (1989).

A critical review of the structures and activities of compounds related to MDMA is presented, with particular attention directed to a somewhat less neurotoxic homolog MBDB. A considerable discussion is attached, with questions, comments, and answers, from the actual conference.

Nichols, D.E. and Oberlender, R. Structure-Activity Relationships of MDMA and Related Compounds: A New Class of Psychoactive Agents? The Clinical, Pharmacological and Neurotoxicological Effects of the Drug MDMA. Kluwer, New York. (1990) Ed: S.J. Peroutka.

An extensive analysis has be made of the structures of drugs that resemble MDMA, and the nature of their action. An argument is presented for the acceptance of a pharmacological classification of Entactogens as being distinct from the Hallucinogens, or psychedelic drugs.

O'Rourke, P.J. Tune In. Turn On. Go To The Office Late on Monday. Rolling Stone, December 19, 1985 p. 109.

The MDMA popularity craze is presented in a humorous retrospective of the drug attitudes of the 1960's.

Peroutka, S.J. Incidence of Recreational Use of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") on an Undergraduate Campus. New England J. Med. 317 1542-1543 (1987).

A random, and anonymous, poll of undergraduates at Stanford University (California) showed that some 39% of all students were experienced with MDMA (mean number of uses was 5.4, and dosage range was 60-250 mg). To date, he finds no evidence to suggest that MDMA is neurotoxic in humans.

Peroutka, S.J. 'Ecstasy': A Human Neurotoxin? Arch. Gen. Psychiat. 46 191 (1989).

A letter to the editor presents three anecdotal observations in connection with the recreational use of MDMA. (1) Frequent use decreases the favorable responses. (2) Chronic use changes the nature of the response, and (3) the material appears not to be addictive. It has been concluded that there may well be a long-term and potentially irreversible effect of MDMA on the human brain. Recreational use should be avoided.

Randall, T. "Ecstasy-Fuelled 'Rave" Parties Become Dances of Death for English Youths. J. Am. Med. Soc. 268 1505-1506 (1992).

A news report and medical perspective on the problems being reported as associated with the use of ecstasy (MDMA) in the British rave scene. A brief history of ecstasy is provided.

Randall, T. 'Rave' Scene, Ecstasy Use, Leap Atlantic. J. Am. Med. Soc. 268 1506 (1992).

A brief history of the 'rave' scene in Britain is presented. The recent appearance of the phenomenon in the United States, and elsewhere around the world, is discussed.

Rattray, M. Ecstasy: Towards an Understanding of the Biochemical Basis of the Action of MDMA. Essays in Biochemistry 26 77-87 (1991).

A review of the history, pharmacoloy and neurochemistry of MDMA is presented. Much of the presented information is factual, some of it is speculative, and several points are simply wrong.

Riedlinger, T.J. and Riedlinger, J.E. Psychedelic and Entactogenic Drugs in the Treatment of Depression. J. Psycho. Drugs 26 41-55 (1994).

Both the virtues of, and the problems associated with, the incorporation of psychedelic drugs into psychotherapy are discussed.

Renfroe, C.L. MDMA on the Street: Analysis Anonymous. J. Psychoactive Drugs 18 363-369 (1986).

In the twelve years (up to 1983) that PharmChem conducted its Analysis Anonymous service, they evaluated over 20,000 samples of street drugs. MDMA and MDA had been classified together (in some 610 examples) and of these 72 had been alleged to be MDMA. In the years 1984-1985, a cooperating reference laboratory (S.P., Miami, Florida) reported an additional 29 alleged MDMA samples. Of these 101 samples, over half proved to be, indeed, MDMA, and half of the remaining contained MDMA. This is considered a remarkably high validity rate. The origins, descriptions, and costs are discussed.

Riedlinger, J.E. The Scheduling of MDMA: A Pharmacist's Perspective. J. Psychoactive Drugs 17 167-171 (1985).

A critical viewpoint is taken of the scheduling procedures employed with MDMA. This paper is adapted from the original letter of protest sent to the DEA, and from the written testimony presented at the hearings.

Riedlinger, T. and Riedlinger, J. The 'Seven Deadly Sins' of Media Hype in Light of the MDMA Controversy. PM&E (Psychedelic Monographs and Essays). 4 22 (1989).

This is a carefully written criticism of the uneven ways in which the popular press weighs and presents controversial issues such as the story concerning MDMA.

Rippchen, R. MDMA Die Neue Sympathiedroge. Der Grune Zweig 103, Medieneexperimente D-6941 Luhrbach, West Germany (1986).

A book of some 47 pages, giving an immense body of information on MDMA (in German) including translations of articles by Greer. Also included is information on other drugs such as MDE and 2C-B.

Roberts, M. Drug Abuse. MDMA: "Madness, not Ecstasy" Crosstalk section, Psychology Today. June, 1986.

An update of an earlier article (Psychology Today, May, 1985) which emphasizes the neurological findings, and the concept of unregulated drug synthesis. Congressional action prohibiting the manufacture and distribution of similar drugs is urged.

Roberts, T.B. The MDMA Question. Section on Social Concerns. AHP Perspective. May, 1986. p. 12.

This is a soul-searching review asking the questions as to where we must acknowledge the line between the need of drug use in therapy, and tolerating drug use in society. Provisions must be made, of course, for both.

Robins, C. The Ecstatic Cybernetic Amino Acid Test. San Francisco Examiner Image, February 16, 1992 p. 6 et seq.

A trip with the author is made through an evening, of a San Francisco rave. The noise, the excessive focus on drugs, smart drinks, energy, dance, music, cyberpunk this and virtual reality that; all make a statement of rebellion. It may all die out, but the concept is truly international in scope, and might soon require the older generation to take it seriously.

Rosenbaum, M. and Doblin, R. Why MDMA Should Not Have Been Made Illegal, Unpublished Essay, 1990.

A brief history and analysis of the illegalization of MDMA is presented.

Saunders, N. "E for Ecstasy" Saunders, London (1993) 318 pp.

A thorough review of the medical, social and legal history of MDMA is presented, in a well documented analysis of this highly controversial drug, at the height of its popularity. The rave scene is described, as is the beginning acceptance of MDMA as a valuble therapeutic tool. An annotated bibliography, by Alexander Shulgin, is attached.

Saunders, N. MDMA - The View from England. MAPS 4 22-24 (1993).

A review is presented of the present position of MDMA in England. A critical discussion of the medical reports, the legal status, and the problems of misrepresentation which are inevitable when the streets are the only source for purchase. Speculations as to future developments are encouraging.

Schuckit, M.A. MDMA (Ecstasy): An Old Drug with New Tricks. Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Newsletter 23 #2 April, 1994.

A review is presented of the history, social use and dangers of MDMA use. The intended audience is the practicing physician.

Sawyer, M. Ecstasy. Select, July 1992 pp 56-61.

A strongly written review covering all sides of the rave scene in England, and the damage that is being done by the strenuous laws against ecstasy. Emphasis is placed on the fraud that is rampant in the misrepresentation of the identities of the drugs that are being sold as MDMA.

Schulman, R. The Losing War Against "Designer Drugs." Business Week, June 24, 1985 pp. 101-104.

An overview of the MDMA controversy. A preview is presented, of the pharmaceutical industry's response (OK to ban it, but not with the haste that might have a chilling effect on the development of new pharmaceuticals) and local law enforcement enthusiasm (Florida has granted the State Attorney General the power to place a drug on the Controlled Drug List in as little as 24 hours).

Sedgwick, B., Lo, P. and Yee, M. Screening and Confirmation of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in Urine: Evaluation of 1000 Specimens. Abstracts of the CAT/SOFT Meetings, Oct. 29 -Nov. 1, 1986, Reno/Lake Tahoe, Nevada.

A sequence of 1000 "at risk" samples were screened for the presence of methamphetamine (MA) and/or MDMA (not distinguishable in the initial analysis). Of 133 presumptive positive tests, none proved to be positive for MDMA.

Seymour, R.B. "MDMA" Haight-Ashbury Publications, San Francisco. 1986

This is a volume devoted entirely to the single drug MDMA. Nine chapters discuss its origins, facts that apply to it, its bright side and dark side, in a carefully balanced presentation. It was made available for the Oakland, California symposium, MDMA: A Multidisciplinary Conference, May 17-18, 1986.

Seymour, R.B. Ecstasy on Trial. High Times, November, 1986. p. 33.

A retrospective review article of the controversies stirred up by the publicity that followed the government hearings and the illegalization of MDMA.

Seymour, R.B., Wesson, D.R. and Smith, D.E. Editor's Introduction. J. Psychoactive Drugs. 18 287 (1986).

An introduction is made to an entire issue of the Journal dedicated to the several papers presented at a two-day conference on the topic of MDMA. This was held May 17-18, 1986, at the Health Education Centre of the Merritt

Peralta Medical Centre, in Oakland, California. Shafer, J. MDMA: Psychedelic Drug Faces Regulation. Psychology Today, May, 1985. pp. 68-69.

This is a short overview presenting the clinical and legal views of a number of psychiatrists, administrators and researchers.

Shulgin, A.T. Twenty Years on an Ever-changing Quest, Psychedelic Reflections, Eds. L. Grinspoon and J.B. Bakalar, Human Science Press, New York (1983). pp. 205-212.

This is an essay on the philosophy of research associated with psychedelic drugs. MDMA is described briefly, with some of its history, pharmacology, and therapeutic potential.

Shulgin, A.T. What is MDMA? PharmChem Newsletter 14 3-11 (1985).

A hypothetical interview is presented, distilling the questions fielded from many reporters, and the substance of the answers given to these questions.

Shulgin, A.T. The Background and Chemistry of MDMA. J. Psychoactive Drugs 18 291-304 (1986).

This review gathers together the physical properties of MDMA, and the published information as to toxicity and pharmacology, as of the date of the Oakland, California conference (May, 1986).

Shulgin, A.T. History of MDMA, The Clinical, Pharmacological and Neurotoxicological Effects of the Drug MDMA. Kluwer, New York. (1990) Ed: S.J. Peroutka.

A review, with 158 references, is presented that outlines the current (mid-1989) literature on then published literature on MDMA.

Siegel, R.K. Chemical Ecstasies. Omni, August 1985. p. 29.

This short essay advises caution in the immediate acceptance of drugs that are enthusiastically promoted but which have not been thoroughly researched.

Smith, D.E. and Seymour, R.B. Abuse Folio: MDMA. High Times, May, 1986. p. 30.

There is a continuing series of drug information sheets, one being published in each issue of High Times. This contribution is a neutral, factual presentation of the nature and use, and of the hazards and liabilities associated with the drug MDMA.

Smith, D.E., Wesson, D.R. and Buffum, J. MDMA: "Ecstasy" as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy and a Street Drug of Abuse. California Society for the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Drug Dependencies News 12 (September) 1985 pp 1-3. A letter to the Editors in response: Holsten, D.W. and Schieser, D.W. Controls over the Manufacture of MDMA. The original authors' reply: ibid. 12 (December) 1985 pp 14-15.

A brief review of the therapeutic virtues and abuse risks that are associated with MDMA, and the chilling effect that illegalization of drugs has had on medical research. The authors were reminded in rebuttal (Holsten and Schieser) that the exploratory use of new drugs outside of the controls that apply to the pharmaceutical industry carry real risks as to safety and quality of product.

Solowij, N. and Lee, N. Survey of Ecstasy [MDMA] Users in Sydney. Drug and Alcohol Directorate NSW Health Department, 1991 (Sydney). CEIDA, PMB No. 6, P.O. Rozelle NSW 2039 (Australia).

An extensive survey is presented of many Ecstasy users in Sydney. It has been found that the principle use of the drug has been directed towards fun, at social gatherings, and the primary effects have been the expression of a positive mood state. A secondary effect has been that of stimulation with an expression of energy and activation. Reports describe the properties of insight and of perceptual/sensual enhancement.

Solowij, N., Hall, W. and Lee, N. Recreational MDMA Use in Sydney: A Profile of "Ecstasy" Users and their Experiences with the Drug. Brit. J. Addictions 87 1161-1172 (1992).

An anonymous survey of MDMA users involved with the social "rave" scene showed a consensus of the users' having experienced positive mood states, and feelings of closeness with others. The stimulant effects were secondary. The usual statements of caution are attached.

Sternbach, G.L. and Varon, J. Designer Drugs. Postgraduate Medicine 91 169-176 (1992).

A review is presented of several synthetic variations of known illegal drugs. The major emphasis is on the opiates (modification of demerol, i.e., MPPP and MPTP) and on the mescaline-methamphetamine analogues (namely, MDA, MDMA and MDEA).

Straus, H. From Crack to Ecstasy; Basement Chemists can Duplicate almost any Over-the-border Drug. American Health, June, 1987 pp. 50-54.

A brief review of the concept of special formulations or syntheses of drugs for the extra-medical market. MDMA is brought in as a minor example.

Szabo, P. MDMA Restrictions too Hasty? The Journal, July/August 1989, p. 4.

A brief news report describes a study reported to the American Psychiatric Association meeting (San Francisco, 1989) involving some 20 psychiatrists who were familiar with MDMA. The opinion of Dr. Liester (University of California at Irvine) sums up the consensus. There is a need for clinical research with this promising drug, and this is not likely in view of the Government's current restrictions.

Taylor, J.M. MDMA Frequently Asked Questions List. Internet (Usenet) Newsgroup alt.drugs, January 5, 1994

This is a review of the known facts relating to MDMA. It is balanced and fair, but it maintains the chemical errors from the ChemicalAbstracts in its synthetic portion, that hydrogen peroxide is used in place of water in the final hydrolysis. Considering its very wide public distribution, this distillation of facts is of excellent quality and must be respected as a fine public service.

Toufexis, A. A Crackdown on Ecstasy. Time Magazine. June 10, 1985. p. 64.

A news report on the placing of MDMA into emergency Schedule I status. The complement to Newsweek's positive article of about the same time.

Turkington, C. Brain Damage Found with Designer Drugs. Amer. Psychological Assn. Monitor March, 1986.

A negative review of the neurotransmitter research. This is probably the source of the oft-quoted "fact" that these drugs are the first demonstration of a neurotransmitter being modified to a neurotoxin.

von Hoyer, E. The Agony of Ecstasy; A Consumer's Guide. Dated April 20, 1988, and identified with "WRT 404 / S. Hubbard"

The is a short essay covering the use of, the action of, and the history of MDMA. It is replete with incorrect information, and has little other value.

Weigle, C. and Rippchen, R., MDMA: Die Psychoaktive Substanz fur Therapie, Ritual und Rekreation. Der Grune Zweig 103, Germany. Printed in Austria about 1991. 88 pages.

A collection of essays on MDMA, some originally in German, some translated, covering the entire spectrum of clinical and social aspects of the drug.

Whitaker-Azmitia, P.M. Depression to Ecstasy. The New Biologist, 1 145-148 (1989).

This is a review of a conference on the neuropharmacology of serotonin, sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences, on July 10-13, 1989. The final session was devoted to MDMA and, involving its potential neurotoxicity, was one of the more controversial ones. It is stated that dramatic evidence was presented at the conference that a serious level of damage had occurred to the serotonin neurons of human MDMA users.

Wolfson, P.E. Letter to Richard Cotton, Dewey, Ballantine, Bushby, Palmer & Wood, Washington, D.C.

A report is made of the effective use of MDMA in conjunction with psychotherapy, in the treatment of both depressed and schizophrenic patients. The apparent anti-manic and anti-paranoia action of MDMA allowed the opening of discourse and allowed intervention with more conventional therapy. It is suggested that there is a promising potential for its use in certain psychotic situations, and a telling argument is made against its legal classification in Schedules I or II.

Woolverton, W.L. A Review of the Effects of Repeated Administration of Selected Phenethylamines. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 17 143-150 (1986)

A review from the literature of the chronic toxicological findings regarding a number of compounds that are being proposed for international control. One reference to MDMA is cited, the Fed. Proc. note (Virus, et al. 45 1066 (1986) which has been published (see Commins, et al., 1987, section 8 above).

Wright, W.R. XTC, Analyte of the Month, 10 3 (1989). Published by the American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

A brief and factual review of MDMA, with a little history and some comments on the validity of immunological assays for MDMA using amphetamine assays.

Zizzo, P. MDMA - Aspects of it's Psychopharmacology. Unpublished essay written for Psych. 119, University of California at Davis, Spring 1989.

This 10 page essay briefly reviews the background and history of the therapeutic work done with MDMA.